Acute Toxicity of Copper II Chloride Dihydrate onClarias gariepinus



Copper II Chloride Dihydrate (CuCl2.2H2O) is a copper based product used in different fields, both for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the level at which it could be toxic on fish when discharged into the aquatic water bodies, thus, the toxic effects of Copper II Chloride Dihydrate (0.0 mg/l,0.2mg/l, 0.4mg/l,0.6mg/l, 0.8mg/l and 1.0mg/l) on Clarias gariepinus gills, liver and kidneys were determined under laboratory conditions. The exposure period lasted 96 hours. The results showed that in the gills, there were loss of lamella, filament degeneration, congestion of the sub mucosa and an extensive necrosis. The liver showed inflammation of the cells, mild and severe diffuse vacuolar degeneration of the hepatocytes, necrosis of the hepatic cells and hemorrhage of the sinusoids. The kidney also showed slight cellular changes, space formation, fragmentation of nuclear chromatin, mild haemorrhage of the interstitium and severe congestion of haemorrhage at renal interstitium while erratic movement, gulping for air hyperventilation, inactiveness, skin discolouration and loss of reflex were observed in the test fish.These damages became severe with increasing concentrations (0.6mg/l, 0.8mg/l and 1.0mg/l) of Copper II Chloride Dihydrate and the time of exposure. The 96-h LC50value was 0. 6mg/l, this was the concentration at which 50% of the experimental fish died however normal features were observed in all the gills, liver and kidneys of C. gariepinus from the control (0.0mg/l) tanks. With the different alterations observed from the gill, liver and kidney structures of the test fish, this study suggests that the usage of CuCl2.2H2O should be controlled near water bodies. Keywords: Histology, Acute Toxicity, Clarias gariepinus, Copper II Chloride Dihydrate, LC

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